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AMH: Anti-Müllerian Hormone

Background

Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) or Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a glycoprotein dimer restricted to sertoli cells of the fetal and postnatal testes in the male, and granulosa cells of the postnatal ovary in the female.

Function

From birth to puberty, ovarian size and antral follicle presence gradually increase (with a slight rise towards the onset of puberty), reaching their maximum levels after puberty. The decrease in female ovarian reserve with age is due to the decline in follicle count. AMH gradually decreases to very low levels after menopause, when the ovarian reserve is fully depleted.

AMH: The current biomarker for female fertility?

Research has shown that at certain age, higher levels of AMH which correlates with ovarian reserves have improved chances with IVF attempts.
It belongs to the transforming growth factor-b family and although, applicable in many areas, until now, its main focus has been on IVF and fertility use.

Section through Ovarian Follicle. In females, AMH is produced in small amounts by ovarian granulosa cells after birth until menopause, and then becomes undetectable.

Section through Testis. In males, AMH is secreted by the sertoli cells.

Studies have shown that AMH concentration in serum is directly related to the antral follicle count.⁴

Diagnostic utility in Male Heatlth: Precocious/delayed puberty onset AMH in Male Health.⁵